加拿大历史 070 – 米奇湖协议

上篇《原住民和土地》里面,咱们说了马尔罗尼担任总理和那之前之后,加拿大经济和社会发生的一些变化。本篇咱们说一说马尔罗尼如何来实现另一个大目标:“把魁北克也带进1982年宪法”。

《宪法回归》那一篇咱们说过,魁北克人没有在加拿大宪法上签字,代之以进行关于魁北克主权的公投。尽管主张独立的一方失败,加拿大宪法没有“涵盖”魁北克,总不是一个统一的国家应该有的样子,资产阶级的软弱性和妥协性,决定这个问题还得通过协商来解决。

对此,马尔罗尼倒没有觉得有多大问题,不就是妥协吗?俺本来就是个调和主义者、折衷主义者,按你们的话说就是善于和稀泥,妥协本就是咱的强项,俺一出马,那一大撮魁独分子,不都会统统变成联邦主义者?

Robert-Bourassa

罗伯特·布拉萨

1985年,罗伯特·布拉萨 (Robert Bourassa)领导的自由党,在魁北克的省选中击败了魁独的魁北克人党,拿回魁北克执政大权。或许,这正是一个“把魁北克也带进1982年宪法”的大好时机,于是马尔罗尼请布拉萨来渥太华谈谈。布拉萨来了,带着写满种种要求的文件,用布拉萨的话说,这些都是让魁北克能够接受宪法的“最低要求”。

布拉萨的这些要求可以分为两类,第一类只有一个,就是要求承认魁北克在加拿大联邦中的“独特地位”。第二类是各种向联邦政府要权的大杂烩,按照魁北克提出的方案,重要的权力都要归到省里。省还有权退出联邦和省合作的项目,但是联邦政府的补贴还要继续给,谁让联邦政府征税的权力大呢?另外,省还有权否决针对宪法修改的任何提案。

有关宪法的修改,可不是总理一句话的事儿。1987年5月,马尔罗尼总理邀请加拿大各省的省长,来渥太华西北魁北克省的米奇湖(Meech Lake)开会,讨论魁北克的提案。不出意外,各位省长都表示可以接受,给自己增加权力哪位省长会不乐意?除了在类似参议院改革这样的细枝末节上做了些微调,最后的《米奇湖协议》(Meech Lake Accord),基本上是按照布拉萨的蓝本来的,这下子魁北克人应该满意,魁北克会被“带进1982年宪法”了吧?

魁北克立法机构1987年6月23日,第一个通过了这个立法提案,这立刻触发了一项规定:从这一刻开始,法案需要在三年之内,也就是1990年的6月22日之前,获得联邦政府和其它九个省的认可,过期便自动作废。对此马尔罗尼很是乐观,毕竟省长们都认可了这个协议,加拿大大多数人,也对这个协议持欢迎态度。通过了这个宪法修改议案,政治上,魁北克会重新纳入加拿大宪法涵盖范围,加拿大就全部统一在这部宪法之下了。

Pierre_Elliot_Trudeau-2

皮埃尔·特鲁多

不过几乎是立刻,就有人跳出来唱反调了,这个人是谁呢?前总理皮埃尔·特鲁多。特鲁多说马尔罗尼这个软蛋,要让加拿大的国家政权变得软弱不堪。如果《米奇湖协议》通过,“我们熟悉和热爱的加拿大将不复存在”。于是开始出现了不和谐言论,主要集中在三个方面:首先是魁北克的“独特地位”,其次权力更多地给了省级政府,省级政府还有了否决权,那以后加拿大的国家级政府联邦政府,还能做什么事呢?另外程序本身也有问题,有人诟病说这是“11个人关起门来搞的东西”,因为会上只有总理和10位省长磋商,其它官员都在会场之外等候结果,媒体也被排斥在外。

最引起争议的是《米奇湖协议》的第二条,就是魁北克“独特地位”这一条。宪法里说加拿大是两个“建国民族”协约的结果,那为什么魁北克就独特呢?说好的平等呢?土著群体说协议无视了我们的权利,我们也要特殊的地位!这是不是也很合理?纽芬兰人是不是也可以要求“特殊地位”?大家似乎都能找到理由“独特”一把。

马尔罗尼说一个省有“独特地位”,只是给魁北克一个象征性的荣誉,大家不必太当真,但是布拉萨可是当真的:独特就是独特,独立于加拿大之外的独特。这样的话,加拿大联邦成什么了?一群省跟魁北克的联邦?两个“国家”的合体?布拉萨坚持要写到宪法里的独特地位,会是个象征性的?

1988年12月,还在为《米奇湖协议》吵吵嚷嚷的时候,加拿大最高法院裁定,魁北克省限制法语以外语言的法案,违反了《加拿大权利和自由宪章》。最高法院下令取消该法案,结果布拉萨援引“尽管条款”,把最高法院的裁决推翻了,尽管马尔罗尼一再求布拉萨别这么干。

一国总理还要求着一省之长,不能定于一尊恶果毕现!

事情还没有完,随后魁北克省又推出《178法案》(Bill 178),把魁北克省内禁止英语标识的范围,做了进一步的扩大,加拿大最高法院还是毫无办法,总理更是无计可施。

“魁北克历史上,还从来没有一届政府如此高举自由的旗帜,来保护法裔的语言和文化。”布拉萨这样向魁北克人表功。

不过这个《178法案》,在加拿大的英语省份里引起了不同的反响,这也殃及了那个认可了魁北克“独特地位”的《米奇湖协议》。

1988年马尔罗尼再次当选的时候,他的两大任务都还没有完成。同美国的自由贸易协定,很快就得到了批准,只是这个《米奇湖协议》,还有待各省的立法机构通过。最后的期限很快就要到了,事情却还不明朗。有三个省,新不伦瑞克、曼尼托巴和纽芬兰省政府改选,原来支持协议的省长落选,新上来的省长,多多少少都表达了对《米奇湖协议》的不满。

随着对《米奇湖协议》的非议声音越来越大,让·查尔斯特(Jean Charest)领导的一个保守党委员会,建议对原始协议做出23项修改,来迎合那些表达不满的群体的胃口,但是得罪魁北克人是可以想见的,马尔罗尼政府的环境部长吕西安·布沙尔(Lucien Bouchard)便是其一。布沙尔辞去部长一职,1990年5月更是退出了保守党另组政党魁北克联盟(Bloc Québécois),说“这个国家啥事儿都干不成” 。

Bouchardimg229us-signed_调整大小吕西安·布沙尔

说起马尔罗尼的好友兼政治伙伴布沙尔,那就是一个如假包换的魁独分子。1980年魁北克为独立进行公投的时候,布沙尔为魁独阵营摇旗呐喊,当然他也为马尔罗尼在魁北克的竞选活动,出了不少力。像马尔罗尼在魁北克竞选时候喊出的话:“在邪恶的英裔加拿大人统治下,魁北克人遭受的耻辱和创伤……”等等,都是布沙尔的语言,演讲稿也是布沙尔来捉刀代笔。布沙尔指导马尔罗尼,怎么在魁北克谈“主权”问题。

马尔罗尼也投桃报李,先是任命布沙尔作为加拿大驻法国大使,派了个持证魁独分子驻巴黎代表加拿大政府,随后任命他做环境部长。现在马尔罗尼在“独特地位”问题上推进不下去,让“魁独分子”很失望。

大限将至,曼尼托巴省长加里·费尔蒙(Gary Filmon)想把《米奇湖协议》提交表决。按照程序,协议必须经过立法机构全体成员通过,否则就需要公众听证,结果就卡在了这个环节上。

elijah-harper以利亚·哈珀

通常这都是走个形式,但是曼尼托巴的新民主党议员,克里人以利亚·哈珀(Elijah Harper)觉得《米奇湖协议》没有提到土著人的权利,拒绝同意。发言人反复征询他的意见,他就是坚持不同意,整个政治程序卡在了曼尼托巴省议会里。

看到《米奇湖协议》就要死在了曼尼托巴的议会里,死于立法技术环节上,联邦政府急了。负责联邦与省之间关系的联邦部长,提议把最后期限推迟三个月,给曼尼托巴省更多的时间做通工作,这需要在魁北克也重新批准,但又惹恼了纽芬兰和拉布拉多省新任省长克莱德·韦尔斯(Clyde Wells)。本来纽芬兰和拉布拉多省立法机构,1988年批准了这个协议,但第二年上台的新省长韦尔斯反对这个协议,一直要求“反悔”,重新表决或者全省公投再做决定。曼尼托巴的这一耽搁,让韦尔斯有了“反悔”的机会。

这一来要想达成联邦和所有十个省的一致通过,已经不可能了,1990年6月23日《米奇湖协议》无疾而终,“这个国家啥事儿都干不成”。

这个提案得到了联邦政府和八个省的同意,占总人口的96%……

见法案给弄死了,魁省省长布拉萨气得说要再次进行魁北克脱离联邦的公投,可把马尔罗尼吓死了,赶紧又搞出一个宪法提案,以起草地夏洛特敦的名字命名为《夏洛特敦协议》(Charlottetown Accord)。

这个协议里,涵盖了一大堆的让步和“共同权力”,完全的土著自治政府、省里有否决权、参议院改革,当然,还有魁北克的“独特地位”,看起来把“所有人”的利益都照顾到了。而这次,也不再提交各省的立法机构表决,而是交由全体加拿大人投票通过。不再搞“小黑屋密谈”,每个人都参与进来,你们还有什么话可说?支持协议的人说这是要让“草根”来决定,此“草根”非本草根,那时候草根还没有登陆加拿大。而反对的人说,这样管理国家的方式简直是疯了,“民主发疯了”。

DSC0891201_调整大小夏洛特敦

皮埃尔·特鲁多比上一次更加执拗,他又一次走上前台,说《夏洛特敦协议》是啥都想要,结果啥都没有,太过分了!而死硬的魁独分子,魁北克人党党首雅克·帕利祖(Jacques Parizeau)说远远不够!

尽管总理、每位省长,这次是每一位省长,甚至反对党的领袖们,第一民族的立法机构,都支持这个新的《夏洛特敦协议》,但是他们说话不算数,要看全民公投的结果,草根的决定。

1992年10月26日,公投结果统计完毕,54%的公民投了反对票,只有大西洋省坚决支持。而在魁北克,结果几乎跟全国平均数一样,55%的魁北克人反对《夏洛特敦协议》。

“这个国家啥事儿都干不成”!

这样的结果,魁北克人能善罢甘休吗?请看下篇《第二次魁北克主权公投》。

全部请看:

加拿大历史 001 – 第一民族                              加拿大历史 002 – 卡伯特和卡蒂埃

加拿大历史 003 – 西北航道                              加拿大历史 004 – 新法兰西之父

加拿大历史 005 – 尚普兰的新法兰西                加拿大历史 006 – 阿卡迪亚的恩怨情仇

加拿大历史 007 – 英国人的纽芬兰                   加拿大历史 008 – 河狸战争

加拿大历史 009 – 皇家省                                  加拿大历史 010 – 探索内陆

加拿大历史 011 – 毛皮战争                              加拿大历史 012 – 阿卡迪亚的征服

加拿大历史 013 – 阿卡迪亚大驱逐                    加拿大历史 014 – 法国印第安战争

加拿大历史 015 – 亚伯拉罕平原之战                加拿大历史 016 – 征服的后果

加拿大历史 017 – 加入我们                              加拿大历史 018 – 英国人站站队

加拿大历史 019 – 爱国人士                               加拿大历史 020 – 上加拿大

加拿大历史 021 – 探索太平洋沿岸                    加拿大历史 022 – 明争暗斗 

加拿大历史 023 – 1812年战争                          加拿大历史 024  – 火烧白宫

加拿大历史 025 – 危机酝酿                               加拿大历史 026  – 极地探险

加拿大历史 027 – 下加拿大叛乱                        加拿大历史 028  – 上加拿大叛乱

加拿大历史 029 – 达拉漠报告                           加拿大历史 030  – 责任政府

加拿大历史 031 – 黄金之地                               加拿大历史 032  – 联合起来

加拿大历史 033 – 联邦孕育                               加拿大历史 034  – 英属北美法案

加拿大历史 035 – 从大洋到大洋                        加拿大历史 036  – 太平洋铁路

加拿大历史 036 – 西北平叛                                加拿大历史 038  – 劳雷尔时代

加拿大历史 039 – 西北淘金                                加拿大历史 040  – 走向一战

加拿大历史 041 – 鏖战西欧                                加拿大历史 042 – 一战结束

加拿大历史 043 – 红色恐怖                                加拿大历史 044 – 女权运动

加拿大历史 045 – 金和米恩                                加拿大历史 046 – 大萧条

加拿大历史 047 – 社会主义政党                         加拿大历史 048 –  中央和地方

加拿大历史 049 – 二战爆发                                加拿大历史 050 –  大西洋战役

加拿大历史 051 – 从西西里到诺曼底                 加拿大历史 052 –  征兵风波

加拿大历史 053 – 种族歧视和移民                      加拿大历史 054 – 古琴科事件 

加拿大历史 055 – 发现石油                                 加拿大历史 056 – 北约和韩战

加拿大历史 057 – 纽芬兰加入联邦                      加拿大历史 058 – 维和行动

加拿大历史 059 – 阿芙罗之箭                             加拿大历史 060 – 古巴导弹危机

加拿大历史 061- 魁北克的寂静革命                    加拿大历史 062 – 皮尔逊和枫叶旗

加拿大历史 063 – 自由的魁北克万岁                  加拿大历史 064 – 十月危机

加拿大历史 065 -多元文化和石油危机                加拿大历史 066 – 第一次魁北克主权公投

加拿大历史 067 – 宪法回归                                加拿大历史 068 – 自由贸易

加拿大历史 069 – 原住民和土地                         加拿大历史 070 – 米奇湖协议

加拿大历史 071 – 第二次魁北克主权公投           加拿大历史 072 – 清晰法案

加拿大历史 073 –土著儿童寄宿学校                   加拿大历史 074 – 保守主义政党

加拿大历史 075 – 自由党腐败                             加拿大历史 076 – 改朝换代

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